Historia de Almería


The city of Almeria was founded in 955 by the Arabs, but there are sites that trace their origins to prehistoric times. The hill where the Alcazaba is currently was the subject of the earliest occupation in prehistoric times, in a period that could be in the Age of Bronce.Posteriormente in pre-Roman times we find Phoenician findings. In Roman times, numerous pottery remains found in the excavations, covering a wide chronology from the first century was the latest productions of fine ceramics, with special emphasis on the end or late Roman period (centuries V to VII). It is occupation opens the possibility of permanence habitat to the “foundation” of the city in 955, based on a small seaside town dependent on the inside (URCI), which would be natural harbor and whose remains are found in various places of the city today.

From Roman remains of the ancient Roman road of Bayyana still remain on the outskirts of the capital.

Al-mariyat Bayyana, the Muslim era

During the Muslim period it was when Almeria reached its peak, especially in the XI-XII centuries, after the fall of the Caliphate of Córdoba, becoming a populous center of civilization. This time, the Alcazaba is the most important legacy that endures to this day, and other debris like mezquita Mayor, Arab Rain tanks or Jairán walls.

The first reliable news about the Muslim Almeria date back to the ninth century, when Abd al-Rahman entrusted with monitoring the coast to a group of Yemenis in order to prevent the landing of the Normans. Together with the local population, a republic based marine Pechina was formed, and whose prosperity was based on trade, especially in North Africa. Pechina magnified and acquired characteristics of real city, with Almería in the IX and X 1st half centuries, maritime Bayyana neighborhood inhabited by traders and fishermen a lookout or watchtower so easily control tower bay.

The watchtower stood at the top of the Cerro de la Alcazaba, in what today is the third enclosure. This watchtower or vantage point comes the name of the city: Al-mariyat Bayyana, the watchtower of Pechina.

Piedra fundacional de la ciudad de Almería
After the victorious battle against the rebels mozárabes, “Abd al-Rahman III (912-961), decided to move the capital of the cora of Pechina, and called watchtower of Pechina received the title of” city “. Greater Mosque was founded and attached to the fortress wall was built. The city, was set around a walled core, the Medina, where the Great Mosque or Aljama, the Alcaicería and Zoco Atarazanas and concentrated.

The religious and commercial center, which enfold the suburbs, Al-Hawd and La Musalla, forming independent cities, where the population is grouped by origin, beliefs and crafts. In 1009-10 Civil War began, and the city takes on one of the most flourishing Taifa. With the disintegration of the Caliphate, the death of Hisham II, Jairán seizes the city, independent of Córdoba and converts Kingdom of Taifa. Jairán expanded and strengthened the fortress, Almotacín reached the fleeting glory to surround himself with writers and poets in his small court ilustrada.En this eleventh century, Almería was the international port of Al-Andalus. The product that was exported silk, excellent quality and large variety of tissues, which brought fame to the city with its many looms. Almería, despite everything, could not cope with the Almoravids, and subsequently the economic splendor attracted the attention of the Christian kingdoms, commanding the troops of Alfonso VII. The capture of the city by the Christians reconquered almohades was held in 1147. Ten years later in 1157. This brief conquest of the city, was a financial loss.

After the Almohad, enters the Nazarite period in the thirteenth century in Almeria, participating in this continuing internal struggles he had to face the United Nazari. Finally, through the 1488 and 1489 campaigns, Almeria straddles the Spanish sovereignty, and is the December 26, 1489, when Christian troops enter the city.

Christian conquest

La Catedral de Almería

After the capture of the city by the Catholic Monarchs, the December 26, 1489, Almería lived centuries of prosperity pauper. Being the sixteenth century is the century of retreat and abandonment of the city and the province. There were several factors that influenced this; first, Almería was away from any American trade route, pass by and saw all the riches from the new continent and brought activity. On the other hand they lavished in the last hundred years both earthquakes and attacks by Barbary pirates and Turks as Barbarossa (in the next century, they happen all of the English armada). The first diminished the population and the second the terrorized and forced to move inland.

Especially unfortunate was the earthquake of 1522, which destroyed the city almost completely and reduced the population to only 700 inhabitants who settled around the newly built Cathedral.

The Cathedral of Almeria is a great example of defensive building of the time. It was the first cathedral temple erected in 1496 under the orders of the Cardinal Archbishop of Toledo Pedro Gonzalez de Mendoza on the old mosque.

The earthquake completely destroyed and 1522 and was then when Fray Diego Fernandez de Villalán, Bishop of Almería, he built the current under the patronage of Our Lady of the Incarnation.

His appearance gives clear military appearance; in fact, it is one of the only cathedral-fortress of its kind in Spain: solid buttresses, flanking towers, thick walls, lack of windows … The three new are of equal height which provides a wide roof that served for installation of guns and military surveillance, only embellish two austere Renaissance covers of Juan de Orea, and on the wall facing the street Cube, the Sol de Portocarrero (Another symbol of the city that although it is believed to reference bishop Portocarrero, the seventeenth century, he was carved from the early days of the cathedral) However, bívedas and sacristy are splendid, Gothic and Renaissance the first second. The temple contains works by Alonso Cano, Murillo and Ribera and San Indalecio of santoral Salzillo.El in Almeria is rich in legends. The above San Indalecio is the landlord of the city and its wreckage came to rest to Almeria after centuries in the abbey of San Juan de la Peña, in Huesca. San Indalecio was one of the Seven Apostolic Men, evangelists Andalucia who according to old traditions collected in mozarabes writings, accompanied James the Greater in the evangelization of southern Spain in the mid-s I A.D.

Seventeenth and eighteenth centuries

It is perhaps the least known period of history Almeria. The seventeenth century began with a galloping depopulation, to which must be added earthquakes, droughts and a coast under constant pirate threat. The Christian repopulation, coming mainly from Jaen, Castilla La Mancha, Levante and Aragon is insufficient and fails to pick up the demography of the city nor the province. Poor communications and isolation remain the same for centuries.

Despite all this, the mining activity is driven with iron holdings in Filabres, lead in Gádor and marble in Macael. The counterpart is the consequent massive logging in the Sierra de Gador and Almagrera that would worsen over the following centuries and would contribute significantly to deforestation in today throughout our territory (this logging and atavistic dryness of the province should be so and not the need for wood to build the Armada, as they have in Almería).

This isolation and harsh conditions however contrast with a cultural and ethnological activity that develops itself born to go slowly in this century and the next, the XVIII. Indeed many of the customs, traditions, games or clothing are born during these 100 years.

In 1640 the first book was published in Almeria at the request of Bishop Jose de la Cerda, which is slowly opening the way for new initiatives that will come with the echoes of illustration. In the eighteenth century, the rulers of the city begin to worry about collecting accurate information on demographics, work and emigration and cultural and social groups are created.

XIX century

After the recovery experienced in the eighteenth century, will be in the mid to late nineteenth century, when again Almería again reach prosperity of yesteryear after reaching an important social and economic dynamism that arises under mining and trade grape enriched the war of independence burguesía.La not pass along Almería, although its threat seemed distant from our province, the French came to occupy commanded by Goudinot, who entered the city on March 15, 1810. offered resistance fighters famous Mena, Villalobos and Arostegui. In 1812, the French withdraw from Almeria defeated by Arapiles.

Comercio dela uva en Almería
In 1814 Fernando VII returns to power and with it the absolutism and the repeal of the courts of Cadiz in 1812. In this context one of the best known historical episodes of the capital was given, the killing of “the coloraos”. It took place in 1824, when a group of soldiers from Gibraltar, who are nicknamed “the coloraos” by the tone of their coats, landed in Almeria with the intention to proclaim freedom and restore the constitution of 1812. Failing in his attempt, 22 of them were shot by the absolutists in the Rambla de Belen up to C / Granada. Years later, he got up in his honor a monument in the Plaza Vieja which is lovingly called the “pingurucho” and was also the subject of controversy destroyed in 1943 during the military dictatorship, on the occasion of the first visit of General Franco Almeria, did not restituyo until 1987 at the behest of most progressive groups in the city, who also revived the annual tribute to the “coloraos” held every August 24.
Paseo del Principe de Almería

It is also the nineteenth century the century of geopolitical developments, urbanisticos and infractructuras. Liberals, once they were made with the government of Madrid, promoted an administrative restructuring of the country born the provinces. It was thanks to the efforts of Count Ofalia, banished to Almeria born de facto our province and acquired by decree of 1834 own administrative personality being detached from the old kingdom of Granada.La appearance of the city will suffer a drastic change in what has been come to call the evolution of the Conventual city Burguesa city.

Indeed, Almeria is spilled outside its walls, which end up being almost completely demolished in 1855. the large monastic perimeters (orchards, fields) are urban developments, recently sold off, leading to places such as San Francisco (San Pedro current).

It gives the city a sewage system and potable water. new streets are drawn, the new Gate Puchena opens, is channeled Rambla de Belen and the axis of the city moves to Calle Real novismo boulevard, clear French inspiration, so many other names would receive before becoming the current Paseo de Almería.

Twentieth century

The city of Almeria has undergone many important changes during the twentieth century has ended with the horizontal and quiet city. It has given way to large buildings in the historical center that has marred its traditional image. He has also been a growth beyond the road round, reaching the Vega de Here and Andarax River.

In the first phase of the century and until 1939 passing the war period, little progress and many difficulties. Emigration and lack of future projects was what he had. Although ideologically representative neighborhoods like Ciudad Jardin, San Roque or Devastated Regions. During the 60 reality changes. The almeriense economic miracle thanks to the spread of sandblasted and intensive agriculture under plastic in the west allowed convert the old desert into a garden.